Guide for Authors

We regret to announce that the Journal of Marine Research, which has published papers vital to the academic oceanographic community for almost 80 years in the long and rich tradition of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research at Yale University, will cease publication as of December 31, 2021. As of June 1, 2021, the Journal of Marine Research will no longer accept manuscript submissions, new subscriptions, or renewals for 2022.


New content for Volumes 78 and 79 already under review and accepted for publication will be published online during 2021 and available through IngentaConnect (




The Journal of Marine Research publishes a broad array of peer-reviewed original research articles, either theoretical or descriptive, on topics in physical, biological, and chemical oceanography pertaining to problems of the sea. Interdisciplinary and disciplinary research emphasizing fundamental processes, connections and mechanistic approaches in both the coastal and open ocean are especially encouraged and will be given priority. Manuscripts that are primarily reports of data and that lack interpretation and broader perspectives on oceanographic processes, mechanisms or dynamics will not be considered.


Submissions are welcome from researchers worldwide. Manuscripts must be original and not previously published or simultaneously submitted elsewhere. Publication is in English only. There are no page or color charges. For information about article processing charges for open access options see below.


Editorial Policies


Embargo Period | Open Access | Data Policy | ORCID | Copyright | Manuscript Preparation


Submissions deemed by the editors to be within the scope of the Journal of Marine Research are reviewed internally and are sent out for external peer review by one or more reviewers.


The initial submission email must be copied to all of the manuscript’s co-authors. If this is not done, the Journal’s office will require a list of all co-authors along with their email addresses so that their approval of the submission can be obtained. The peer review process will not begin until it is clear that all co-authors have been contacted and approve of the submission.


Submit manuscripts as digital files (including figures and supplementary files, if any) by electronic mail ( or through an online cloud service for files larger than 20MB, or contact us for assistance. Files must conform to specific manuscript preparation guidelines (see below) and include a completed Manuscript Submission Form downloadable here. Keep copies of all submitted files. The Journal is not responsible for lost or corrupted files.


Authors may provide the names and email addresses of at least three reviewers with each manuscript submission, and are encouraged to do so.


Manuscripts accepted for publication but that require revision will be returned to authors within approximately two months with reviewer comments from at least two reviews. Authors will have one month to confirm their intention to submit a revised manuscript and three months to provide complete revised files.


Substantial changes will require new electronic files (including revised figures, if any). Manuscripts may go through a single or several revision cycles. The failure of an author to make required changes can result in rejection; unrequested changes without written justification may be treated as a new submission if substantial, or can result in rejection. Delays could result if materials are not in proper form. Manuscripts, once revised and complete, are published approximately in the order in which accepted for publication.


Manuscripts are copyedited for Journal of Marine Research style and format after peer review, when complete final revised manuscripts are received by the editorial office.


Page proofs of the copyedited and formatted article are sent to the corresponding author as a PDF file for review and final approval through our online proofing system. Instructions are provided with proofs. This proof copy is for checking printer’s errors only and to resolve any copyediting queries or missing information; only trivial revisions can be made at this stage. Extensive revisions other than typographical errors are not allowed unless the author is willing to cover the extra costs of any such revisions. Corrected PDF proofs must be returned within 3 business days.


Embargo Period


The Journal of Marine Research is a subscription online journal available through IngentaConnect at Beginning in January 2020 the embargo period will cover the six most recent issues. This will allow compliance with agency mandates that require articles to be freely accessible one year after publication.


Open Access


Authors who publish in the Journal of Marine Research retain copyright to their published articles and grant to the Journal by written agreement rights in perpetuity to publish, reproduce, distribute, license, sell, and archive their articles both electronically and in print.


As copyright owners, authors are free, on publication, to independently deposit their published papers in open access repositories without an embargo period. Authors are also free to make their Author-Accepted-Manuscript (final, peer-reviewed revised but not copyedited manuscript) freely available, on acceptance for publication in the Journal, in recognized open access repositories. We request that attribution and a link to the final published article be included.


Authors also have the option, with the payment of processing charges, to designate their articles in the Journal of Marine Research as open access on publication, to be made immediately freely available online through IngentaConnect at This option must be exercised at the time of acceptance of the manuscript for publication and payment is due on submission of the final revised manuscript. Contact the editorial office at for information.


Data Policy


Authors are strongly encouraged to deposit their primary research data and metadata, for the use of the scientific community, in trusted archival repositories that show compliance with international standards for data repositories. If appropriate repositories are not available, authors should be prepared to make the data easily available directly on request. Supplementary files that accompany published articles do not qualify as data archiving for purposes of this policy.


Materials to be archived include, but are not limited to:

(1) data used to generate tables, charts, graphs, plots, and multimedia representations;

(2) software versions used in the research;

(3) new methods (software, computer code) used to generate data, results, or analyses; and

(4) derived data products.


In addition, providing metadata with datasets makes the data more usable for other researchers.


Authors who choose to make their data available must cite this data, as well as any software used in the research, in the methods section of the article with a corresponding entry in the reference list, along with any links. These should use the unique, resolvable, and persistent identifiers provided by the repository where the data are archived. In addition, if cited in the manuscript, on submission this information must be provide separately on the Journal of Marine Research Manuscript Submission Form downloadable here, so that it can be made available for peer review.


Supplementary files that accompany published articles must also be declared on submission of manuscripts and made available for peer review.


See also the following for additional information.


Coalition for Publishing Data in the Earth and Space Sciences (COPDESS). Enabling FAIR Data FAQs. Available here:


Environmental Data Initiative. Available here:


Soranno, P.A. 2019. Six simple steps to share your data when publishing research articles. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 28, 41–44. Available here:




To enhance online accessibility the Journal of Marine Research recommends an ORCID identifier (to register go to be submitted for all contributors listed as authors, along with any relevant funding source information, including award numbers. ORCID numbers will be included in published articles. Provide this information on the Journal of Marine Research Manuscript Submission Form downloadable here.




Authors published in the Journal of Marine Research retain copyright and proprietary rights, such as trademark and patent rights, in their original content. Authors grant the Journal of Marine Research, using our publication agreement, an exclusive right of first publication and also grant to the Journal of Marine Research the nonexclusive worldwide license to publish, reproduce, distribute, license, sell, and archive their article, in print and electronically, in all languages and media for the full term of copyright. The manuscript cannot be previously published in whole or in part, and cannot currently be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Completed and signed agreements are due no later than submission of revised accepted manuscripts.


Published articles include the author copyright notice. Authors receive, on publication, a free PDF file of their published article. Authors are asked to credit the Journal of Marine Research as the original publisher in all their uses of their articles.


Authors will need to obtain and submit with their manuscripts written documentation of permissions granted from the copyright holders, at the authors’ expense, for any previously published or copyrighted materials not owned by the authors used in their articles. Full credit and attribution for such materials must be included in captions or the acknowledgments. You may download our sample permission request letter here.


For guidance on rights usage and permissions see the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., Chapter 4, available here:


A note about Google Maps and Google Earth: All imagery must be at high resolution and have attribution. Follow Google’s requirements available at Documentation for permission to use Google Maps and Google Earth imagery is not required, but original credit and copyright information shown on the images should be retained (at a size legible in the final version) or included in a caption.




Formatting | Citations and References |Tables and Figures


Submit manuscripts as digital files (including figures and supplementary files, if any) by electronic mail to the Journal of Marine Research editorial office at, or through an online cloud service for files larger than 20MB, or contact us for assistance. Keep copies of all submitted files. The Journal is not responsible for lost or corrupted files.


Include with your initial submission a completed Manuscript Submission Form downloadable here.


Manuscripts are always to be initially submitted as electronic files in Microsoft Word or PDF to facilitate peer review. For final revised manuscripts, Microsoft Word and LaTeX files (find information at accompanied by an exact copy in PDF are accepted, together with separate individual figure digital image files.


Sample LaTeX files showing Journal styles and formatting are available at


All figures and tables must be cited in the main text and numbered consecutively according to first mention. Provide captions for figures and tables in a separate electronic file.


Including all figure files (illustrations and photographs) as separate digital files with initial submission is recommended, so that resolution or compatibility issues can be assessed (see below for requirements).


Double-space all text files with one-inch (2.5 cm) margins on all sides. Use a Times 12-point font. Do not use all capital letters.


Include an unnumbered cover page with the article title and all authors’ names, affiliations, mailing addresses, and e-mail addresses. Designate a corresponding author for co-authored articles. Corresponding authors will receive all communications from the Journal editorial office.


For general guidelines see the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., Chapter 2, Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Authors, available here:




The Journal of Marine Research publishes in English only, with American English spelling and usage. Use a recent issue as a guide to formatting. Below are general guidelines.


The Journal of Marine Research reserves the right to adjust style and format to meet its production specifications, and reserves the right to reject figures and manuscripts that do not conform to these requirements.


Contact the Journal of Marine Research editorial office at for assistance at any time.


Manuscripts should contain at a minimum the following components (additional headings may be included, numbered consecutively):


Abstract of up to 250 words and up to 10 keywords

1. Introduction

2. Additional main heading(s) (as needed)

3. Methods

4. Results or Discussion

5. Conclusion


Appendix (if present)



—Sections and subsections in the text should be numbered consecutively (see example below).
—Subheadings that delimit different subsections within the text should be explicit, descriptive, and as short as possible; hierarchical levels should be parallel and consistent throughout the manuscript. Avoid using more than three levels.
—Indent all paragraphs, with no returns between paragraphs.
—Include a minimum of two subheadings at each outline level. Place headings on separate lines, formatted sentence style, as follows:


1. Main heading

a. Subheading first level

i. Second level subheading

ii. Second level subheading

b. Subheading first level


2. Main heading

a. Subheading first level

b. Subheading first level

i. Second level subheading

ii. Second level subheading


Mathematical display equations should be centered between paragraphs and each numbered consecutively at the right margin as (Eq. 1), (Eq. 2), etc. Cite all equations in the text.


Measurements and units should follow the International System of Units (SI). See the guidance at


For guidance on formatting not explicitly given here see the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.,at and Scientific Style and Format, 8th ed., at


Citations and References


Every citation in the text must be given in the reference list, including internet sources and databases.


Forthcoming manuscripts must be under contract to be listed in the references and cited in the text. Unpublished manuscripts, materials not easily accessible to researchers through a repository or institution, and manuscripts in preparation should be cited only in the text.


In-text citations

Citations in text use the author-name system, without commas:

(Ledwell et al. 1983)


List multiple citations chronologically, then alphabetically:

(Smith and Jones 1991; Jones 2008; Smith 2008)


For identical authors in the same year, use letters and the full year:

(Smith and Jones 2009a, 2009b)


For references in the same year and with the same lead author, but co-authors that are not identical, include enough names to distinguish the citations, without letters:

(Smith, Jones, Hu et al. 2009; Smith, Jones, James et al. 2009)


Reference lists

List references alphabetically (letter-by-letter) according to the first author’s last name, surname first, then initials (with periods and spaces). List co-authors with their initials first, then surname.


Use sentence style for journal article titles and chapter titles, and headline style for book titles.


Use standard abbreviations for journal names. Guides are available here:


Journal Abbreviation Resources on the Web, University of Illinois


Stony Brook University Library


Note italics and punctuation shown in the examples below, and prefix to be used for DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers), which should be included when available.


General format for journal articles:

Last name, Initials, Initials Co-author1, and Initials Co-author2. Year. Article title in sentence style. Journal Name Abbreviated, Volume, full page numbers with en dash for ranges.




Rossby, C. G. 1937–1938. On the mutual adjustment of pressure and velocity distributions in certain simple current systems. J. Mar. Res., 1(1), 15–28.


Veronis, G. 2011. A tribute to Melvin E. Stern (1929–2010) in A Tribute to Melvin E. Stern. J. Mar. Res., 69(4–6), iii–xx.


Wijesekera, H. W., J. S. Allen and P. Newberger. 2003. A modeling study of turbulent mixing over the continental shelf: Comparison of turbulent closure schemes. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), 3103.


General format for books:

Last Name, Initials. Year. Book Title in Headline Style. Place of publication: Publisher, number of pages.




Pedlosky, J. 1998. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. New York: Springer, 728 pp.


Shor, E. N. 1978. Scripps Institution of Oceanography: Probing the Oceans 1936 to 1976. E-book, San Diego: Tofua Press.


General format for a chapter in a book:

Last Name, Initials. Year. Chapter title in sentence style in Book Title, edition. Editor (or Author) initials Last Name, ed. Place of publication: Publisher, full chapter page numbers with en dash for ranges.




Bryden, H. L. 1983. The southern ocean in Eddies in Marine Science. A. R. Robinson, ed. New York: Springer, 265–277.


General format for a paper or abstract in published proceedings:

Last Name, Initials. Year. Title in sentence style in Book Title, edition. Editor (or Author) initials Last Name, ed. Name of Annual Meeting, Society Name, Meeting Location, Meeting days Month year. Place of publication: Publisher, full page numbers with en dash for ranges.


Oxenford, H. 1986. Synopsis of the biological data on the four-winged flyingfish Hirundichthys affinis in Development Strategies for Flyingfish Fisheries of the Eastern Caribbean. R. Mahon, H. Oxenford, and W. Hunte, eds. Proceedings of an IDRC-sponsored workshop at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados, 22–23 October 1985. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. Manuscript Report 128e, 51–88.


General format for a conference presentation:

Last Name, Initials. Year. “Title.” Paper presented at Name of Annual Meeting, Society Name, Meeting Location, Meeting days Month year.




Stephen, R. and P. P. M. Kunjamma. 1987. “Vertical distribution of calanoid copepods in the equatorial Indian Ocean.” Abstract, Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Copepoda, London, 10–14 August 1987. 63 pp.


General format for a dissertation:

Last Name, Initials. Year. Title. Ph.D. diss., Institution. Online source or




Kinney, J. W. 2012. Evolution of the Peconic Estuary “Oyster Terrain” Long Island, NY. Ph.D. diss., State University of New York at Stony Brook. ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing, 3517544.

General format for a web site:

Author or Organization. Year. Page title. Publisher. Last modified date, accessed date. URL




[NWS] National Weather Service. 2019. Marine Forecasts. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Last modified 15 August 2019, accessed 22 November 2019.


General format for forthcoming publications under contract:

Last name, Initials, Initials Co-author1 and Initials Co-author2. Article title in sentence style. Journal name abbreviated, in press.




Gramstad, O., and A. V. Babanin. 2016. The generalized kinetic equation as a model for the nonlinear transfer in third generation wave models. Ocean Dyn., in press.


Last Name, Initials. Book Title. Place of publication: Publisher, in press.




Heemstra, P., E. Heemstra, D. Ebert, W. Holleman and J. Randall, eds. Coastal Fishes of the Western Indian Ocean. Grahamstown, South Africa: South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, in press.


Shakhovskoy, I. B. and B. B. Collette. Family Exocoetidae, Flyingfishes in P. Heemstra, E. Heemstra, D. Ebert, W. Holleman and J. Randall, eds. Coastal Fishes of the Western Indian Ocean. Grahamstown, South Africa: South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, in press.


General format for a map:

Cartographer Last Name, Initials. Year. Title of Map. Map number, map scale. Place of publication: Publisher, size or description. or Location, access date, url.


Stone, J. R., J. P. Schafer, E. H. London, M. L. Digiacomo-Cohen, R. S. Lewis and W. B. Thompson. 2005. Quaternary Geologic Map of Connecticut and Long Island Sound Basin. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2784. Prepared in cooperation with the State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Geological and Natural History Survey. Reston, VA: USGS. 2 sheets and pamphlet.


General format for newspaper articles:

Last Name, Initials. Year Month Day. “Article title.” Newspaper or magazine title, section or edition name, column or full page numbers with en dash for ranges.


With author:

Wilford, J. N. 1986 August 14. Texas fossil may be bird’s oldest ancestor. New York Times, Sect. A:1(col. 1).


Without author:

“Fish in Connecticut: What the fish commissioners learned and did during the year.” 1884 December 10. New York Times, 5.


General format for computer software:

Author or Software Company. Year. Name of Software, Version number. Computer program, Place of publication: Publisher. URL




[ESRI] Environmental Systems Research Institute. 2006. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst, Version 9.2. ArcGIS Desktop Extension. Computer program, Redlands, CA: ESRI.


For guidance on formatting not listed here, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., Chapter 15, at


Tables and Figures


All illustrations and photographs are to be provided at the time of submission as electronic files scanned or prepared to professional standards. 


Figures and tables should be designed for “portrait” orientation and not “landscape”; no figure or table will be published larger than page size. Figures and tables will be copyedited for consistency with Journal style and formatting, and will be placed as close as possible to first mention as practical.


Tables (word processing or spreadsheet files)

Tabular material should be provided as separate files and not placed in the text. Submit tables as .csv, .xls, or .xlsx spreadsheet files or as tab-delimited word processing files.


—Number tables consecutively using Arabic numerals, separate from figures.
—Provide a descriptive caption for each table and define any abbreviations and symbols used in the table.
—Give source citations for table data in the caption or footnote; use lowercase letter superscripts for footnotes.
—Do not use embedded graphics, vertical lines or vertical writing, or all capital letters; do not submit tables as image files. Tables that use graphics, nested tables or special formatting should be numbered as figures and provided in a graphics (preferably vector) file format instead.


Figures (digital graphic files)

Figures will be evaluated for any technical improvements needed and recommendations provided when manuscripts are returned with reviewer comments. Authors may be asked to resubmit revised figures.


Figures may be provided as JPG or PDF files for use in peer review, but authors are encouraged to provide full resolution final figures with initial submission so that these can be assessed for technical requirements.


Figures will be copyedited for consistency with Journal style and formatting and must be legible and in proportion to page size. Do not embed figures with text in Microsoft files.


Provide a title or first descriptive sentence in the caption for multi-part figures. Figures with multiple elements should be labeled with parenthetical lowercase letters and provided as one single electronic file. Be consistent in the use and style of labels throughout the manuscript. Sans serif letters in a standard typeface (Helvetica, Arial, Symbol, Mathematical Pi, European Pi; use Type 1 Postscript or Open Type fonts) are recommended for figure labels.


Do not include the figure number or title as part of the figure itself; these should be placed in the caption, along with any definitions for abbreviations, symbols, and labels. Do not use all capital letters for labels or titles. Label all axes in charts.


Scale bars must appear on illustrations, photographs, and maps; alternatively, magnification values can be given in the accompanying caption text.


All final figures are to be submitted as separate, individual, professional quality, high-resolution files scanned or prepared to professional standards in the following acceptable formats: JPG, TIF, PSD (raster); EPS, AI (vector). Submit color images in RGB color mode. Multi-part figures should be provided as a single electronic file proportional to the available journal page size, rather than as separate files.


Include the author name and figure number in image file names.


Figures created in Microsoft Office products and low resolution images downloaded from the internet will not reproduce well and cannot be accepted.


The minimum resolution requirements for JPG, TIF, PSD (raster) files are as follows:

—1200 ppi for monochrome (black and white only) line images (save as grayscale bitmap TIF to reduce file size)
—300 ppi for halftones (color or grayscale photographs)
—800 ppi for “combination” files that include both photographs and text and/or line art


Files should measure at least 2000 pixels on shortest side and generally be larger than 4MB.


Size all raster and scanned figures to print at 100% at the final page size (3 inches wide minimum, about 8 cm; 5 inches wide maximum, about 13 cm; maximum page height is 6.5 inches, about 16.5 cm). We recommend printing the file at actual size to judge the quality and readability of the figure.


The minimum requirements for EPS (vector) files are as follows:

—Document color mode setting RGB
—Document raster effects resolution setting 600 ppi
—Embedded (not linked) placed raster images (photographs and art) that have the raster resolution requirements above
—Nonstandard or specialty fonts converted to outlines or provided with the file


For additional technical guidance on image specifications for print and specific software recommendations, see the following:


Cenveo Publisher Services Digital Art Support


The University of Chicago Press Digital Art Digest for Authors


For guidance on standard practices for designing scientific figures and tables, see the following:


The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., Chapter 3


Scientific Style and Format, 8th ed., Chapter 30


Contact the Journal of Marine Research editorial office at for assistance at any time.


Updated 26 November 2019